Edit Although both social constructionism and social constructivism deal with ways in which social phenomena develop, they are distinct. For this reason, social constructionism is typically described as a sociological concept whereas social constructivism is typically described as a psychological concept. However, while distinct, they are also complementary aspects of a single process through which humans in society create their worlds and, thereby, themselves. Social constructivism has been studied by many educational psychologists, who are concerned with its implications for teaching and learning.
Cognition Cognition means acquiring knowledge of the objective world. The central concept in the Marxist understanding of Cognition is practicewhich is the criterion of truth for Marxism.
While the objective world is the source of knowledge, mere existence as part of the world and sensuous contact with the world does not provide knowledge of the world.
Only struggling to change the world can create conditions for acquiring knowledge. Even then, only if action is connected with theory can theory be changed and knowledge acquired, for blind, impulsive activity can lead to success or failure but not knowledge.
Central to the problem of cognition is the relation between Subject and Object. Different understandings of the subject-object relation lead to scepticism — that cognition is impossible, Relativism — that knowledge is possible but has no objective significance; dogmatism — that knowledge is not only possible but can be absolute and final; Empiricism and Rationalism which emphasise respectively Experience or Reason in Cognition; Objectivism and Subjectivism which emphasise the role of the objective world or subjective consciousness in the process of Cognition.
The distinction usually made between collaboration and cooperation is that in cooperation, the workers do separate tasks each contributing to the final product, whereas in collaboration the workers actively engage on the same tasks, correcting one another, swapping ideas, exerting combined force, and so on.
Collaboration therefore, involves both cooperation unity and conflict critique. Though division of labour i. For constructivist psychologycollaboration is the essential character of human activity and the basis for all learning. Command Economy Command economy is the method of managing the economy of a whole country by means of top-down direction.
|Definition[ edit ] A social construct or construction concerns the meaning, notion, or connotation placed on an object or event by a society, and adopted by the inhabitants of that society with respect to how they view or deal with the object or event.|
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|Murder of Kitty Genovese wiki Social Engineering refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.|
|Social Intelligence Social Studies||Definition[ edit ] A social construct or construction concerns the meaning, notion, or connotation placed on an object or event by a society, and adopted by the inhabitants of that society with respect to how they view or deal with the object or event.|
The term came into currency in the s as a description of the economy in the USSR and other Stalinist countries, where the entire economy was run along the same lines as single capitalist enterprises had been run up until that time, before the spread of Toyotism.
Commercialisation Commercialisation is the process orienting labour away from a public service ethos to production of commodities and a commercial ethos. Recent activities which have been subject to commercialisation include scientific research, artistic and cultural activity, public education and sport.
Commercialisation is a form of socialisation which ensures the dominance of the interests of capital in a given field of activity. Commodification Commodification means the transformation of relationships, formerly untainted by commerce, into commercial relationships, relationships of exchange, of buying and selling.
Marx and Engels described the process in in the Communist Manifesto: It has drowned out the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation.
It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom - Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.
It has converted the physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the man of science, into its paid wage labourers. Examples of commodification include: The extension of commodification is a contradictory process: Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes.
Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify.
All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere.
To the great chagrin of reactionaries, it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilised nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose products are consumed, not only at home, but in every quarter of the globe.
In place of the old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes.
In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal inter-dependence of nations. And as in material, so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property.
National one-sidedness and narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous national and local literatures, there arises a world literature. It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst, i.
In one word, it creates a world after its own image. It has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population as compared with the rural, and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life. Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns, so it has made barbarian and semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilised ones, nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West.
It has agglomerated population, centralised the means of production, and has concentrated property in a few hands. The necessary consequence of this was political centralisation.
Independent, or but loosely connected provinces, with separate interests, laws, governments, and systems of taxation, became lumped together into one nation, with one government, one code of laws, one national class interest, one frontier, and one customs tariff. At a certain stage in the development of these means of production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society produced and exchanged, the feudal organisation of agriculture and manufacturing industry, in one word, the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters.Social constructionism is a sociological theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings.
Generally, it means that people develop understandings by using experiences and. A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given. What we view as real in this world is actually a social construct or rather an invention of a particular culture or society.
Its existence relies solely on the agreement between people. This is the concept of social constructionism. Social constructionism and social constructivism are sociological theories of knowledge that consider how social phenomena or objects of consciousness develop in social contexts.
A social construction (social construct) is a concept or practice that is the construct (or cultural artifact) of a particular group. Sociology is the systematic study of individuals and social structures.
A sociologist examines the relationship between individuals and our society, which includes institutions (the family), organizations (the military), and systems (our economy). Strong social constructionism • Strong social constructionists oppose the existence of "brute" facts – That a mountain is a mountain (as opposed to just another undifferentiated clump of earth) is socially.