A Universal Scripture The timeless and universal message of the Gita is all-encompassing in its expression of truth. Bhagavad Gita means "Song of the Spirit," the divine communion of truth-realization between man and his Creator, the teachings of Spirit through the soul, that should be sung unceasingly….
Nomenclature[ edit ] The Gita in the title of the text "Bhagavad Gita" means "song". Religious leaders and scholars interpret the word "Bhagavad" in a number of ways. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the Song of God" by the theistic schools,  "the Song of the Lord",  "the Divine Song",   and "the Celestial Song" by others.
He's been also called Veda-Vyasa. According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts.
This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the later likely. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition.
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier. He states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, and dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita.
This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd- or 3rd-century CE. The Mahabharata — the world's longest poem — is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between " BCE or little earlier, and 2nd-century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as CE", states Fowler.
The dating of the Gita is thus dependent on the uncertain dating of the Mahabharata. The actual dates of composition of the Gita remain unresolved. These are the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. Smarta Tradition The Bhagavad Gita is the sealing achievement of Hindu Synthesis, incorporating its various religious traditions.
It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action karmaknowledge jnanadevotion bhakti. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others, [web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism.
Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: According to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Bhagavad Gita attempts "to forge a harmony" between these three paths. The Gita disapproves of these, stating that not only is it against the tradition but against Krishna himself, because "Krishna dwells within all beings, in torturing the body the ascetic would be torturing him", states Flood.
Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. According to Upadhyaya, the Gita states that none of these paths to spiritual realization are "intrinsically superior or inferior", rather they "converge in one and lead to the same goal".
Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23—40, that is 6. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with verses has not been found. Since Shankara's time, the " verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita.
Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin.
The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war".
He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts.
Arjuna, one of the Pandavas Krishna, Arjuna's charioteer and guru who was actually an incarnation of Lord Vishnu Sanjaya, counselor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra secondary narrator Dhritarashtra, Kuru king Sanjaya's audience Chapters[ edit ] Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters section 25 to 42  [web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata.
Because of differences in recensionsthe verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same.
Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga.
Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel.
Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those "eager for this war". He sees family and friends on the enemy side. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow.
He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. Bengali script ; Bottom: The warrior Arjuna whose past had focussed on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about.
Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, soul, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality.The Bhagavad Gita is the best known, and most famous of Hindu scriptures.
While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence. The Bhagavad-Gita is known as one of the most fundamental texts that form the basis of Hinduism, which has become one of the world's great religions.
At the same time, however, the idea of Hinduism as a religion is a bit of a misnomer. As the Gita suggests, Hinduism is a way of live -- a philosophy. The Bhagavad Gita is the best known of all the Indian scriptures, and Eknath Easwaran's best-selling translation is reliable, readable, and profound.
Easwaran's page introduction places the Bhagavad Gita in its historical setting, and brings out the universality and timelessness of its teachings. The Bhagavad Gita, which means ‘The Song of the Lord’ is commonly known as the Gita.
The Gita’s universal message is renouncing the desire for action rather than the action itself. disseminating the Gita's non-dogmatic, scientific description of human life.
In , the Bhagavad Gita by Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood was published as a Mentor Pocket Book. The Bhagavad-Gita: The Song of God contains spiritual details that are constructed towards Hinduism.
The Bhagavad-Gita is the conversation between a man called Arjuna, and God himself in a human form.