The procedure of injecting a hormone into winter flounders

Garcia del Barco et al. Other work shows how critical the nature of the gene construct is. All the offspring were tested by PCR for presence of the transgene and of alevins were correctly assigned on this basis.

The procedure of injecting a hormone into winter flounders

The flounder were then kept in an aerated tank with a maintained temperature between C and a salinity between Each individual flounder was injected with a prepared carp pituitary hormone extract GtH according to their body weights to induce spawning.

Using a 20 microliter syringe, the extract was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity. Two injections, within four hours, per specimen were given per day. After the appearance of a swollen abdomen, the injections were terminated, The flounder were allowed time for ovulation before the milt semen and the eggs were stripped and collected into a container.

The eggs and the milt were allowed to mix for five minutes to permit optimal fertilization. Then, the egg mixture was washed with clean sea water, with a ppt salinity and C temperature, to remove excess organic matter. To maintain the temperature, the containers were then placed in the same tank with the flounders.

Aeration was controlled to maintain adequate dissolved O2 level. A certain volume if fungicide was added to prevent fungal growth. Observations of the development of the eggs were taken daily under dissecting microscopes. Unfertilized eggs were collected and discarded. Twenty percent of the sea water of the containers was also a changed daily and transferred into another container.

Lawrence to the Chesapeake Bay. They do not spawn well in laboratories or aqua cultured systems. Due to decreasing natural stocks from over fishing, Aquaculturists have tried successfully to spawn winter flounder.

Current spawning methods require an injection of every specimen that becomes time consuming and stressful. The goal of this project was artificially to induce spawning by injecting carp pituitary hormone extracts. Hatchlings will then be raised eventually to find alternative ways of spawning winter flounder.

In this research project carp pituitary extract Gonadotropin hormone GtH will be used to induce winter flounder spawning. GtH induces ovulation and eventual spawning.

Gonadotropic regulation of androgen production in flounder and salmonids

Once spawning occurs fertilization will be accomplished artificially and eggs will be incubated for the duration of development. The eggs will be kept under the following conditions: Hatchlings are expected in the second and third weeks following fertilization. After hatching, cultured artemia brine shrimp will be introduced to encourage feeding and growth.

The flounder were injected with carp pituitary extract that contained gonadotropin hormone GtHat a dosage of 0. This hormone initiated oocyte development, ovulation and eventual spawning. Three of the four females and all males injected spawned and produced milt, respectively.

Spawning females were stripped by hand and abouteggs were obtained in total from two individuals. They were partitioned into six two-liter plastic containers. Temperature in the tank was maintained between C and salinity between ppt.

The procedure of injecting a hormone into winter flounders

Development of the fertilized eggs was monitored with a dissecting microscope. Dead or unfertilized eggs were discarded. About 1, hatchlings were separated from the eggs. A hatchling success rate of about 0.Why the flounder is flat Date: December 5, The genome and transcriptome of Japanese flounder provide insights into flatfish to identify the nursery grounds of winter flounder.

Studies on two types of gonadotropins from both American plaice and winter flounder pituitaries ☆. Stimulation of ketotestosterone could be observed 24 and 48 hr after a single injection of flounder maturational hormone.

Manipulation of the seasonal reproductive cycle in winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, using a gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone given three saline injections wk 1; Group 5 - hormone treated fish (GnRH-A IN J)given three injections wk i of 20 gg kg -1 dorsal ovary were aspirated into a 14G needle and the eggs were pre-.

Pituitary transplants or injections of winter flounder pituitary homogenates inhibit AFP biosyn- thesis and result in the loss of AFP from the plasma (Fletcher ; Fletcher et al., ). Our current hypothesis is that a pi- tuitary factor inhibits the production of an- tifreeze peptides during the summer months.

Regulation of antifreeze protein production in winter flounder: A unique function for growth hormone.

THE PROCESS OF GENETIC MODIFICATION